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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)PTSD is a serious potentially debilitating condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a natural disaster, serious accident, terrorist incident, sudden death of a loved one, war, violent personal assault such as rape, or other life-threatening occurrences.

Most people who experience such tragedies recover from them, but people with PTSD symptoms continue to be severely depressed and anxious for months or even years following the event.

Women are twice as likely to develop PTSD as men, and children can also develop it. PTSD often occurs with depression, substance abuse, or other anxiety disorders.

Military personnel and Service Veterans experiencing PTSD symptoms should contact the government sponsored program Military One Source for immediate assistance.

Click here if you ever experience thoughts of suicide.


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Symptoms

PTSD is diagnosed after a person experiences symptoms for at least one month following a traumatic event. However symptoms may not appear until several months or even years later. PTSD is characterized by three main types of symptoms:

  • Re-experiencing the trauma through intrusive distressing recollections of the event, flashbacks, and nightmares.
  • Emotional numbness and avoidance of places, people, and activities that are reminders of the trauma.
  • Increased arousal such as difficulty sleeping and concentrating, feeling jumpy, and being easily irritated and angered.

Diagnosis criteria that apply to adults, adolescents, and children older than six include those below.

Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violation:

  • directly experiencing traumatic incidents
  • witnessing, in person, the traumatic incident
  • learning that the traumatic incident occurred to a close family member or close friend; cases of actual or threatened death must have been violent or accidental
  • experiencing repeated or extreme exposure to adverse details of the traumatic episode (Examples are first responders collecting human remains; police officers repeatedly exposed to details of child abuse). Note: This does not apply to exposure through electronic media, television, movies, or pictures, unless exposure is work-related.

The presence of one or more of the following:

  • spontaneous or cued recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive distressing memories of the traumatic incidents (Note: In children repetitive play may occur in which themes or aspects of the trauma are expressed.)
  • recurrent distressing dreams in which the content or affect (i.e. feeling) of the dream is related to the event (Note: In children there may be frightening dreams without recognizable content.)
  • flashbacks or other dissociative reactions in which the individual feels or acts as if the traumatic events are recurring (Note: In children trauma-specific reenactment may occur in play.)
  • intense or prolonged psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic events
  • physiological reactions to reminders of the traumatic events

Persistent avoidance of distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings about or closely associated with the trauma or of external reminders (i.e., people, places, conversations, activities, objects, situations)

Two or more of the following:

  • inability to remember an important aspect of the trauma (not due to head injury, alcohol, or drugs)
  • persistent and exaggerated negative beliefs or expectations about oneself, others, or the world (e.g., I am bad, No one can be trusted, The world is completely dangerous).
  • persistent, distorted blame of self or others about the cause or consequences of the trauma
  • persistent fear, horror, anger, guilt, or shame
  • markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities
  • feelings of detachment or estrangement from others
  • persistent inability to experience positive emotions

Two or more of the following marked changes in arousal and re-activity:

  • irritable or aggressive behavior
  • reckless or self-destructive behavior
  • hypervigilance
  • exaggerated startle response
  • problems with concentration
  • difficulty falling or staying asleep or restless sleep

Also, clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning not attributed to the direct physiological effects of medication, drugs, or alcohol or another medical condition, such as tramatic brain injury.


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